Jesus is the underlying theme of the entire Bible and specifically the Old Testament.
Matthew 5:17 NKJV “Do not think that I came to destroy the Law or the Prophets. I did not come to destroy but to fulfill.
Matthew 5:17 NLT “Don’t misunderstand why I have come. I did not come to abolish the law of Moses or the writings of the prophets. No, I came to accomplish their purpose.
Luke 24:25-27 NKJV Then He said to them, “O foolish ones, and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! (26) Ought not the Christ to have suffered these things and to enter into His glory?” (27) And beginning at Moses and all the Prophets, He expounded to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning Himself.
Luke 24:44-45 NKJV Then He said to them, “These are the words which I spoke to you while I was still with you, that all things must be fulfilled which were written in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms concerning Me.” (45) And He opened their understanding, that they might comprehend the Scriptures.
John 5:39 NLT “You search the Scriptures because you think they give you eternal life. But the Scriptures point to Me!
Revelation 19:10 NKJV And I fell at his feet to worship him. But he said to me, “See that you do not do that! I am your fellow servant, and of your brethren who have the testimony of Jesus. Worship God! For the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.”
The Old Testament can be divided up into Five Major Divisions:
The Historical Books
- 1 Samuel
- 2 Samuel
- 1 Kings
- 2 Kings
- 1 Chronicles
- 2 Chronicles
The Poetic Books
- Song of Solomon
The Major Prophetical Books
The Minor Prophetical Books
The first five books of the Bible are sometimes called the Pentateuch which means “five books.” They are also known as the books of the law because they contain the laws and instruction given by the Lord through Moses to the people of Israel. These books were written by Moses, except for the last portion of Deuteronomy because it tells about the death of Moses. These five books lay the foundation for the coming of Christ in that here God chooses and brings into being the nation of Israel. As God’s chosen people, Israel became the custodians of the Old Testament, the recipients of the covenants of promise, and the channel of Messiah (Rom. 3:2; 9:1-5).
(From the Series: CONCISE OLD TESTAMENT SURVEY found at Bible.org)
GENESIS (The Book of Beginnings)
DATE: 1450-1410 B.C.
From the Creation to the death of Joseph, covering a period of 2315 years, from 4004 BC to 1689 BC
NAME OF THE BOOK:
The name Genesis is taken from the Septuagint (LXX), the Greek translation of the Old Testament.
THEME AND PURPOSE:
It has been called the seed-plot of the Bible from the fact that the seeds of all the great doctrines concerning God, man, sin, and salvation are found there. But perhaps the main theme is also the selection of a nation through Abraham and the Abrahamic covenant. Through Abraham God promised to bless the nations (Gen. 12:1-3; 15:1-21) and provide redemption for mankind.
“Generations” or “account.” A key word or phrase is “these are the generations of” or “this is the account of.” It is used some eleven times to introduce the reader to the next section which gives the narrative about what happened in connection with the key events and persons of the book from the creation of the heavens and the earth to all the patriarchs of Israel.
KEY IDEA: Beginnings
Genesis not only means ‘beginning’, but it is the book of beginnings. The book of Genesis gives us our historical point of reference, from which all subsequent revelation proceeds. In the book of Genesis all the major themes of the Bible have their origin. It is a book of many beginnings: in it we see the beginning of the universe, of man and woman, of human sin and the fall of the race, the beginning of God’s promises of salvation, and the beginning of the nation Israel as the chosen people of God because of God’s special purpose for them as the channel for Messiah and Savior. In Genesis we learn about Adam and Eve, about Satan the tempter, about Noah, the flood, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph and his brothers. But here we also have the beginning of marriage, family, work, sin, murder, capitol punishment, sacrifice, races, languages, civilization, Sabbath, the first attempt at a united nations, and Babylonianism. The Bible is, through and through, a historical revelation. It is the account of God’s activity in history.
Since the call of Abraham and the promises of blessing to the nations through his seed is the prominent message of Genesis, the key chapters are those relating to the Abrahamic covenant and its reiteration, 12:1-3; 15:1-21; 17:1-9.
Adam, Eve, Noah, Abraham, Sarah, Isaac, Rebekah, Esau, Jacob, Rachel, Joseph.
CHRIST AS SEEN IN GENESIS:
Prophetically: Immediately after the fall, the promise of salvation is given in the seed of the woman (3:15), but then the Messianic links are made clear throughout Genesis: the family of Abraham (12:3), the Abrahamic Covenant, the seed and sacrifice of Isaac (26:3), the sons of Jacob (46:3)
OUTLINE: The book easily falls into two major sections:
Four Events and Four People
Four Events (Gen. 1-11)
- The creation of the world and man (1-2)
- The corruption of man, the fall (3-5)
- The destruction of man, the flood (6-9)
- The dispersion of man, the nations (10-11)
Four People: (Gen. 12-50)
- Abraham (the father of faith and of the nation Israel) (12-23)
- Isaac (the beloved son of promise) (24-26)
- Jacob (scheming and chastening) (27-36)
- Joseph (suffering and glory) (37-50)
EXODUS (The Book of Redemption)
DATE: 1450-1410 B.C.
Covers 216 years, from 1706 BC to 1490 BC
NAME OF THE BOOK:
“Exodus” is a Latin word derived from the Greek exodos, the name given to the book by those who translated it into the Greek Septuagint (LXX). The word means “exit,” “departure.”
THEME AND PURPOSE:
Two themes prevail in Exodus: (1) Redemption as pictured in the Passover, and (2) deliverance from the bondage of Egypt as seen in the Exodus out of Egypt and crossing the Red Sea.
“Redeem,” used nine times (6:6; 13:13; 15:13; 21:8; 34:20).
After nearly four hundreds years of growth in Egypt, Exodus continues the history of God’s chosen people, the nation of Israel, and describes their deliverance out of Egypt and their development as a nation, actually, a theocracy under God. It describes the birth, history, and call of Moses by God to lead the people out of their Egyptian bondage and into the promised land, the land of Canaan. Through the Passover lamb, the sparing of the firstborn, along with the miracles of the ten plagues, and the crossing of the Red Sea, God showed His people that He was not only more powerful than any Egyptian Pharaoh, but was the sovereign Lord, Yahweh, the God of redemption and revelation.
Once the people had crossed the Red Sea and arrived in the wilderness or desert, God gave them His righteous law and declared that they were a treasured possession to Him and were to be a kingdom of priests, a holy nation as a testimony to the nations (Ex. 19:4-7). This holy law, including the Ten Commandments, demonstrated God’s holiness, taught them how to love God and one another, but in the process, it also demonstrated how all fall short of the holiness of God and need a way of access to God that provides forgiveness. This was provided for in the tabernacle, the sacrifices, and the Levitical priesthood.
Chapters 12-14 record the redemption of Israel from slavery in fulfillment of God’s promises; delivered from slavery by blood (the Passover lamb) and by power (the parting of the Red Sea).
Moses, Aaron, Miriam, Pharaoh.
CHRIST AS SEEN IN EXODUS:
While Exodus contains no direct prophecy of Christ, there are a number of beautiful types of the Savior.
(1) In many ways, Moses is a type of Christ. Deuteronomy 18:15 shows that Moses, as a prophet, anticipates Christ. Both are kinsman-redeemers who were endangered in infancy, renounced their power to serve others, and functioned as mediators, lawgivers, and deliverers.
(2) The Passover is a very specific type of Christ as the sinless Lamb of God (John 1:29, 36; 1 Cor. 5:7).
(3) The Seven Feasts, each of which portray some aspect of the Savior.
(4) The Exodus, which Paul connects with baptism, pictures our identification with Christ in His death, burial, and resurrection (1 Cor. 10:1-2; Rom. 6:2-3).
(5) The Manna and Water are both portrayed as pictures of Christ (John 6:31-35, 48-63; 1 Cor. 10:3-4). Bread of Life and Living Water
(6) The Tabernacle portrays the Savior in its material, colors, furniture, arrangement, and the offerings sacrificed there (Heb. 9:1-10:18).
(7) The High Priest quite clearly foreshadows the person and ministry of Christ (Heb. 4:14-16; 9:11-12, 24-28).
Exodus easily divides into two sections: Redemption and Revelation
Redemption From Egypt (1-18)
- In Bondage (Subjection) (1-12)
- Out of Bondage (Redemption by blood and power) (12-14)
- Journeying to Sinai (Education) (15-18)
Revelation From God (19-40)
- The Giving of the Law (19-24)
- The Institution of the Tabernacle (25-31)
- The Breaking of the Law (32-34)
- The Construction of the Tabernacle (35-40)
LEVITICUS (The Book of Holiness)
DATE: 1450-1410 B.C.
Less than a year of the journey at Sinai.
NAME OF THE BOOK:
Leviticus receives its name from the Septuagint and means “relating to the Levites.” The Levites were the priests who were chosen of God to minister to the nation. The book of Leviticus contains many of the laws given by God to direct them in their work as priests for the worship of God.
THEME AND PURPOSE:
Leviticus 11:45 says, “Be holy, because I am holy.” The directives given in the book of Leviticus showed Israel was to walk before God as a holy people. Leviticus was designed to teach Israel (1) how to worship and walk with God and (2) how the nation was to fulfill its calling as a nation of priests. The great theme of Leviticus is holiness. A holy God can only be approached on the basis of sacrifice through the mediation of a priest.
KEY WORD: “Holiness.”
Chapter 16 deals with the Day of Atonement, which became the most important day in the Hebrew calendar because it was the only day the high priest was allowed to enter into the Holy of Holies in order to make atonement for the people. “… for it is on this day that atonement shall be made for you to cleanse you; you shall be clean from all your sins before the Lord” (16:30).
Moses and Aaron.
CHRIST AS SEEN IN LEVITICUS:
Similar to Exodus, a number of types of Christ are evident in Leviticus.
- The Five Offerings all typify the person and work of Christ in His sinless life, submission to the Father that we might have fellowship with God.
- The High Priest as mentioned above is a very prominent type of Christ in Leviticus.
- The Seven Feasts, again, as mentioned, also form a type of the Savior.
Leviticus falls into two clear divisions: Sacrifice and Sanctification
- The Laws of Sacrifice for Approach to God (1-7)
- The Laws of the Priests (8-10)
- The Laws Regarding Purity (11-15)
- The Laws of National Atonement (16-17)
- The Laws of Sanctification for God’s People (18-20)
- The Laws of Sanctification for God’s Priests (21-22)
- The Laws of Sanctification in Worship (23-24)
- The Laws of Sanctification in the Land of Canaan (25-26)
- The Laws of Sanctification and Vows (27)
NUMBERS (Wilderness Wanderings)
DATE: 1450-1410 B.C.
39 years of Israel’s wandering in the wilderness, from about 1490 to 1451 BC
NAME OF THE BOOK:
Numbers gets its name from the two accounts in chapters 1 and 26 of the numbering or counting of the people of Israel first at Mount Sinai and second on the plains of Moab.
THEME AND PURPOSE:
Though Numbers gets its name from the numbering of the people, it is primarily concerned with nearly 40 years of wandering in the desert. A journey which should have only lasted eleven days became a 38-year agony of defeat simply because of the disbelief and disobedience of the people. Numbers, then, shows the consequence of failing to mix faith with the promises of God (see Heb. 3:16-4:2). Further, Numbers teaches us that while life does have its wilderness experiences, God’s people do not have to stay in those conditions. Joshua will illustrate this later.
Another important theme shown throughout the book of Numbers is found in God’s continual care for his people. Over and over again, regardless of their rebellion and unbelief, He miraculously supplied their needs. He provided them with water, manna, and quail. He continued to love and forgive the people even when they complained, grumbled, and rebelled against Him.
GOD’S PROVISION IN THE WILDERNESS:
To provide for 2.5 million people:
• 4500 tons of manna per day / 65,700,000 tons over 40 years
• 90,000,000 quail per month (30 days)
• 15,000,000 gallons of water per day / 100,000,000 per week
Chapters 13-14 stand as the key chapters because these chapters record a critical turning point for the nation. Here, at Kadesh-Barnea (32:8), after receiving the evil report from 10 of the 12 spies whom Moses sent to spy out the land, with the exception of Joshua and Caleb Israel focused on the giants in the land, failed to believe God, and refused to enter to possess and conquer the land, a Land that flowed with milk and honey.
Moses, Aaron, Miriam, Joshua, Caleb, Balak, Balaam
Balaam’s error consisted of the belief that God could not refuse to curse such a sinful people as Israel. But he failed to take into account that which could blot out their sins – the grace of God.
CHRIST AS SEEN IN NUMBERS:
- Perhaps no place is there a clearer portrait of Christ and His crucifixion than in the serpent lifted up on the standard (cf. Num. 21:4-9 with John 3:14).
- The rock that quenched the thirst of the people is a type of Christ (1 Cor. 10:4).
- The daily manna pictures Christ as the bread come down from heaven (John 6:31-33).
- The pillar of cloud and fire portray the guidance of Christ and the cities of refuge certainly portray Christ as our refuge from judgment.
- Finally, the red heifer is also a type of Christ (ch. 19).
Numbers divides into three sections: Preparation at Sinai, Failure of the Old Generation, Preparation of the New Generation.
Preparation at Sinai (Old Generation) (1-10)
- The Position and Numbering of the People (1-4)
- The Precepts of God and Sanctification of the People (5:1-9:14)
- The Pilgrimage Toward the Promised Land (9:15-10:36)
Failure of the Old Generation (11-25)
- Discontent Along the Way (11-12)
- Disbelief at Kadesh-Barnea (13-14)
- Discipline from the Lord (15-25)
Preparation of the New Generation (26-36)
- Reorganization of Israel (26-27)
- Regulation of Offerings and Vows (28-30)
- Regionalization of the Land (31-36)
DEUTERONOMY (Reiteration and Reviewing)
DATE: 1410 B.C.
Two months on the plains of Moab, 1451 BC
NAME OF THE BOOK:
The English title, which comes from the Septuagint, means “second law-giving” and comes from the mistranslation of 17:18, which actually says “a copy of this law.” Deuteronomy is a not a second law, but rather a review, expansion, and reiteration of the original law given at Sinai.
THEME AND PURPOSE:
Watch yourself lest you forget. After forty years of wandering in the wilderness, the Israelites were on the eve of entering the promised land. Before they did, it was necessary (lest they forget what God had done and who they were) that they be reminded about all that God had done for them and about God’s holy law which was so vital to their ability to remain in the land and function as God’s holy nation and as a kingdom of priests to the nations (Deut. 4:1-8). As a part of this theme or purpose, the book also emphasizes the vital necessity of teaching children to love and obey God. Deuteronomy ends with the renewal of God’s covenant with Israel (chapter 29), Joshua’s appointment as the new leader (chapter 31), and Moses’ death (chapter 34).
“Covenant” (occurring some 27 times)
30:19-20 I call heaven and earth to witness against you today, that I have set before you life and death, the blessing and the curse. So choose life in order that you may live, you and your descendants, 20 by loving the Lord your God, by obeying His voice, and by holding fast to Him; for this is your life and the length of your days, that you may live in the land which the Lord swore to your fathers, to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, to give them.
Chapter 27 is key because in it there is a formal ratification of Israel’s covenant as Moses and the levitical priests call upon all Israel to take heed and listen, for in verses 9-10 it is declared, “This day you have become a people for the Lord your God. You shall therefore obey the Lord your God, and do His commandments and His statutes which I command you today.”
Chapters 28-30 are also key because of the promises regarding Israel’s near and distant future as it pertains to blessing for obedience or cursing for disobedience.
Moses and Joshua.
CHRIST AS SEEN IN DEUTERONOMY:
The statement about Moses in 18:15 is one of the clearest portraits of Christ. It reads, “The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you, from your countrymen, you shall listen to him.”
Deuteronomy divides into five sections:
- Preamble (1:1-5)
- Review of Israel’s Wanderings—Historical (1:6-4:43)
- Rehearsal of Israel’s Law—Legal (4:44-26:19)
- Ratification of Israel’s Covenant—Motivational (27:1-30:20)
- Conclusion (31:1-34:12)
Summary: Key Words and Themes to Remember
|Genesis||Beginnings||Election of the nation|
|Exodus||Redemption||Redemption of the nation|
|Leviticus||Holiness||Sanctification of the nation|
|Numbers||Wandering||Direction of the nation|
|Deuteronomy||Review||Instruction of the Nation|
JOSHUA (Possession and Conquest)
DATE: 1400-1370 B.C.
TITLE OF THE BOOK:
Unlike the first five books of the Old Testament, this book appropriately takes its name from the chief human personality of the book, Joshua, the son of Nun, Moses’ servant. Joshua’s original name was Hoshea (Num. 13:8; Deut. 32:44) which means “salvation.” But during the wilderness wanderings Moses changed his name to Yehoshua, meaning “Yahweh is salvation” or “Save, Yahweh” (Num. 13:16). Joshua is a contracted form of Yehoshua. This amounted to a prophetic anticipation and reminder to Joshua, to the spies, and the people that victory over the enemies and possession of the land would be by the power of the Lord rather than by human skill or wisdom or power. This book is given the name Joshua because, though Joshua was one of the world’s greatest military strategist of history, his wisdom and military achievements came from the Lord who alone is our Salvation. It was the Lord Himself who brought about victory for Israel and vanquished Israel’s enemies giving them possession of the land.
THEME AND PURPOSE:
Possessing, conquering, and dividing of the promised land is the theme and purpose of Joshua. The book of Joshua is designed to show God’s faithfulness to His promises, doing for Israel exactly as He had promised (cf. Gen. 15:18 with Josh. 1:2-6 and 21:43-45). The events recorded in Joshua are selective to set forth God’s special intervention on behalf of His people against all kinds of tremendous odds. The fulfillment of God’s promises, as so evident in the birth of Isaac to Abraham and Sarah and in possessing the land with its fortified cities, is the work of God and that which man could never do no matter how hard he might try (see Rom. 4).
Possession, conquest, victory, dividing the land.
Joshua 1:6-9 NKJV Be strong and of good courage, for to this people you shall divide as an inheritance the land which I swore to their fathers to give them. (7) Only be strong and very courageous, that you may observe to do according to all the law which Moses My servant commanded you; do not turn from it to the right hand or to the left, that you may prosper wherever you go. (8) This Book of the Law shall not depart from your mouth, but you shall meditate in it day and night, that you may observe to do according to all that is written in it. For then you will make your way prosperous, and then you will have good success. (9) Have I not commanded you? Be strong and of good courage; do not be afraid, nor be dismayed, for the LORD your God is with you wherever you go.”
11:23 So Joshua took the whole land, according to all that the Lord had spoken to Moses, and Joshua gave it for an inheritance to Israel according to their divisions by their tribes. Thus the land had rest from war.
Changes in leadership are always critical times for any nation. For that reason, the following chapters are key chapters in Joshua.
Chapters 1-4 record the change of leadership from Moses to Joshua and God’s personal promises and words of encouragement to Joshua in his new commission from the Lord, the crossing of the Jordan by the power of God, the commemoration of the crossing followed by the statement, “On that day the Lord exalted Joshua in the sight of all Israel; so that they revered him, just as they had revered Moses all the days of his life.”
Chapter 24: In keeping with the crucial nature of changes in leadership, chapter 24 is likewise an important chapter. Here Joshua reminds the people of God’s faithfulness from the time of Abraham through their deliverance out of Egypt, the crossing of the Jordan and victory over the Canaanites. Then he calls on them to remember the necessity of their faithfulness or they would be consumed by the Lord.
Joshua, Rahab, Caleb.
CHRIST AS SEEN IN JOSHUA:
Though there are no direct Messianic prophecies of Christ, there are a number of types which point to the Savior. Joshua is a type of Christ in two very important ways. First, his name, Yeshua, a contracted form of Yehoshua, meaning, “Yahweh is salvation,” is the Greek equivalent of the name Jesus. Joshua is actually called by the name Jesus in Acts 7:45. Second, Joshua is seen as a type of Christ in his work of leading Israel triumphantly into the rest of their promised possession, the land of Canaan (cf. Heb. 4:8). This is but a foretaste of the rest we enter by faith in Christ. He surely foreshadows the Savior who leads “many sons to glory” (Heb. 2:9-10). Further, Joshua was met by the Commander of the Lord’s army in 5:13-15. This is undoubtedly a Christophany, a preincarnate appearance of Christ who was there to teach Joshua that He had come not to take sides, but to take over as commander. Finally, Rahab’s scarlet cord (2:21) portrays salvation through the blood and death of Christ (cf. Heb. 9:19-22). This Gentile prostitute heard of the mighty works of God, believed, hid the spies, was delivered when Jericho was destroyed, and is found in the genealogy of Christ (Matt. 1:5).
Beautiful Story of Rahab
Joshua 6:25 NKJV And Joshua spared Rahab the harlot, her father’s household, and all that she had. So she dwells in Israel to this day, because she hid the messengers whom Joshua sent to spy out Jericho.
Matthew 1:5-6 NKJV Salmon begot Boaz by Rahab, Boaz begot Obed by Ruth, Obed begot Jesse, (6) and Jesse begot David the king. David the king begot Solomon by her who had been the wife of Uriah.
- The Invasion of Canaan (1:1-5:12)
- The Commissioning of Joshua (1:1-9)
- The Command of Joshua to the People and Their Response (1:10-18)
- The Canvassing of Jericho (chap. 2)
- The Crossing of the Jordan (chap. 3)
- The Commemoration of the Crossing (chap. 4)
- The Consecration of the People (chap. 5-12)
- The Conquest of Canaan (5:13-12:24)
- Conditioned for Victory: The Divine Commander (5:13-15)
- The Campaign in the Central Portion (chaps. 6-8)
- The Campaign in the South (chaps. 9-10)
- The Campaign in the North (11:1-15)
- The Review of the Victories (11:16-12:24)
- The Division of Canaan (chaps. 13-21)
- The Inheritance for the Two and One-Half Tribes (chap. 13)
- The Inheritance for Caleb (chap. 14)
- The Inheritance for the Nine and One-Half Tribes (15:1-19:48)
- The Inheritance for Joshua (19:49-51)
- The Cities of Refuge (20:1-9)
- The Cities for the Levites (21:1-45)
- Conclusion (chaps. 22-24)
- The Dispute About the Altar (chap. 22)
- The Discourse of Joshua (23:1-24:28)
- The Death of Joshua (24:29-33)
Sun Stand Still Faith (Always based on the Word of God)
Promise to Joshua
Joshua 8:1-2 NIV Then the LORD said to Joshua, “Do not be afraid; do not be discouraged. Take the whole army with you, and go up and attack Ai. For I have delivered into your hands the king of Ai, his people, his city and his land. (2) You shall do to Ai and its king as you did to Jericho and its king, except that you may carry off their plunder and livestock for yourselves. Set an ambush behind the city.”
Joshua defeats Ai and its King
Joshua 8:29 NIV He impaled the body of the king of Ai on a pole and left it there until evening. At sunset, Joshua ordered them to take the body from the pole and throw it down at the entrance of the city gate. And they raised a large pile of rocks over it, which remains to this day.
Gibeon makes peace with Israel
Joshua 10:1-2 NKJV Now it came to pass when Adoni-Zedek king of Jerusalem heard how Joshua had taken Ai and had utterly destroyed it–as he had done to Jericho and its king, so he had done to Ai and its king–and how the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel and were among them, (2) that they feared greatly, because Gibeon was a great city, like one of the royal cities, and because it was greater than Ai, and all its men were mighty.
Five Kings decide to attack Gibeon and Children of Israel
Joshua 10:3-4 NKJV Therefore Adoni-Zedek king of Jerusalem sent to Hoham king of Hebron, Piram king of Jarmuth, Japhia king of Lachish, and Debir king of Eglon, saying, (4) “Come up to me and help me, that we may attack Gibeon, for it has made peace with Joshua and with the children of Israel.”
Promise of Victory over Five Kings
Joshua 10:7-8 NKJV So Joshua ascended from Gilgal, he and all the people of war with him, and all the mighty men of valor. (8) And the LORD said to Joshua, “Do not fear them, for I have delivered them into your hand; not a man of them shall stand before you.”
Joshua needs more time to accomplish his mission
Joshua 10:12-14 NKJV Then Joshua spoke to the LORD in the day when the LORD delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel: “Sun, stand still over Gibeon; And Moon, in the Valley of Aijalon.” (13) So the sun stood still, And the moon stopped, Till the people had revenge Upon their enemies. Is this not written in the Book of Jasher? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and did not hasten to go down for about a whole day. (14) And there has been no day like that, before it or after it, that the LORD heeded the voice of a man; for the LORD fought for Israel.
What gave Joshua faith to believe he could command the Sun to stand Still
Deuteronomy 21:22-23 NKJV (22) “If a man has committed a sin deserving of death, and he is put to death, and you hang him on a tree, (23) his body shall not remain overnight on the tree, but you shall surely bury him that day, so that you do not defile the land which the LORD your God is giving you as an inheritance; for he who is hanged is accursed of God.
Joshua 10:16-27 NKJV But these five kings had fled and hidden themselves in a cave at Makkedah. (17) And it was told Joshua, saying, “The five kings have been found hidden in the cave at Makkedah.” (18) So Joshua said, “Roll large stones against the mouth of the cave, and set men by it to guard them. (19) And do not stay there yourselves, but pursue your enemies, and attack their rear guard. Do not allow them to enter their cities, for the LORD your God has delivered them into your hand.” (20) Then it happened, while Joshua and the children of Israel made an end of slaying them with a very great slaughter, till they had finished, that those who escaped entered fortified cities. (21) And all the people returned to the camp, to Joshua at Makkedah, in peace. No one moved his tongue against any of the children of Israel. (22) Then Joshua said, “Open the mouth of the cave, and bring out those five kings to me from the cave.” (23) And they did so, and brought out those five kings to him from the cave: the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jarmuth, the king of Lachish, and the king of Eglon. (24) So it was, when they brought out those kings to Joshua, that Joshua called for all the men of Israel, and said to the captains of the men of war who went with him, “Come near, put your feet on the necks of these kings.” And they drew near and put their feet on their necks. (25) Then Joshua said to them, “Do not be afraid, nor be dismayed; be strong and of good courage, for thus the LORD will do to all your enemies against whom you fight.” (26) And afterward Joshua struck them and killed them, and hanged them on five trees; and they were hanging on the trees until evening. (27) So it was at the time of the going down of the sun that Joshua commanded, and they took them down from the trees, cast them into the cave where they had been hidden, and laid large stones against the cave’s mouth, which remain until this very day.
Jesus did the same thing:
Mark 4:39-41 NKJV (39) Then He arose and rebuked the wind, and said to the sea, “Peace, be still!” And the wind ceased and there was a great calm. (40) But He said to them, “Why are you so fearful? How is it that you have no faith?” (41) And they feared exceedingly, and said to one another, “Who can this be, that even the wind and the sea obey Him!”
Psalms 107:28-30 NKJV Then they cry out to the LORD in their trouble, And He brings them out of their distresses. (29) He calms the storm, So that its waves are still. (30) Then they are glad because they are quiet; So He guides them to their desired haven.