Bible Overview – Part 3
DEUTERONOMY (Reiteration and Reviewing)
DATE: 1410 B.C.
Two months on the plains of Moab
NAME OF THE BOOK:
The English title, which comes from the Septuagint, means “second law-giving” and comes from the mistranslation of 17:18, which actually says “a copy of this law.” Deuteronomy is a not a second law, but rather a review, expansion, and reiteration of the original law given at Sinai.
THEME AND PURPOSE:
Watch yourself lest you forget. After forty years of wandering in the wilderness, the Israelites were on the eve of entering the promised land. Before they did, it was necessary (lest they forget what God had done and who they were) that they be reminded about all that God had done for them and about God’s holy law which was so vital to their ability to remain in the land and function as God’s holy nation and as a kingdom of priests to the nations (Deut. 4:1-8). As a part of this theme or purpose, the book also emphasizes the vital necessity of teaching children to love and obey God. Deuteronomy ends with the renewal of God’s covenant with Israel (chapter 29), Joshua’s appointment as the new leader (chapter 31), and Moses’ death (chapter 34).
“Covenant” (occurring some 27 times)
30:19-20 I call heaven and earth to witness against you today, that I have set before you life and death, the blessing and the curse. So choose life in order that you may live, you and your descendants, 20 by loving the Lord your God, by obeying His voice, and by holding fast to Him; for this is your life and the length of your days, that you may live in the land which the Lord swore to your fathers, to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, to give them.
Chapter 27 is key because in it there is a formal ratification of Israel’s covenant as Moses and the levitical priests call upon all Israel to take heed and listen, for in verses 9-10 it is declared, “This day you have become a people for the Lord your God. You shall therefore obey the Lord your God, and do His commandments and His statutes which I command you today.”
Chapters 28-30 are also key because of the promises regarding Israel’s near and distant future as it pertains to blessing for obedience or cursing for disobedience.
Moses and Joshua.
CHRIST AS SEEN IN DEUTERONOMY:
The statement about Moses in 18:15 is one of the clearest portraits of Christ. It reads, “The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you, from your countrymen, you shall listen to him.”
Deuteronomy divides into five sections:
- Preamble (1:1-5)
- Review of Israel’s Wanderings—Historical (1:6-4:43)
- Rehearsal of Israel’s Law—Legal (4:44-26:19)
- Ratification of Israel’s Covenant—Motivational (27:1-30:20)
- Conclusion (31:1-34:12)
Summary: Key Words and Themes to Remember
|Genesis||Beginnings||Election of the nation|
|Exodus||Redemption||Redemption of the nation|
|Leviticus||Holiness||Sanctification of the nation|
|Numbers||Wandering||Direction of the nation|
|Deuteronomy||Review||Instruction of the Nation|
JOSHUA (Possession and Conquest)
DATE: 1400-1370 B.C.
TITLE OF THE BOOK:
Unlike the first five books of the Old Testament, this book appropriately takes its name from the chief human personality of the book, Joshua, the son of Nun, Moses’ servant. Joshua’s original name was Hoshea (Num. 13:8; Deut. 32:44) which means “salvation.” But during the wilderness wanderings Moses changed his name to Yehoshua, meaning “Yahweh is salvation” or “Save, Yahweh” (Num. 13:16). Joshua is a contracted form of Yehoshua. This amounted to a prophetic anticipation and reminder to Joshua, to the spies, and the people that victory over the enemies and possession of the land would be by the power of the Lord rather than by human skill or wisdom or power. This book is given the name Joshua because, though Joshua was one of the world’s greatest military strategist of history, his wisdom and military achievements came from the Lord who alone is our Salvation. It was the Lord Himself who brought about victory for Israel and vanquished Israel’s enemies giving them possession of the land.
THEME AND PURPOSE:
Possessing, conquering, and dividing of the promised land is the theme and purpose of Joshua. The book of Joshua is designed to show God’s faithfulness to His promises, doing for Israel exactly as He had promised (cf. Gen. 15:18 with Josh. 1:2-6 and 21:43-45). The events recorded in Joshua are selective to set forth God’s special intervention on behalf of His people against all kinds of tremendous odds. The fulfillment of God’s promises, as so evident in the birth of Isaac to Abraham and Sarah and in possessing the land with its fortified cities, is the work of God and that which man could never do no matter how hard he might try (see Rom. 4).
Possession, conquest, victory, dividing the land.
Joshua 1:6-9 NKJV Be strong and of good courage, for to this people you shall divide as an inheritance the land which I swore to their fathers to give them. (7) Only be strong and very courageous, that you may observe to do according to all the law which Moses My servant commanded you; do not turn from it to the right hand or to the left, that you may prosper wherever you go. (8) This Book of the Law shall not depart from your mouth, but you shall meditate in it day and night, that you may observe to do according to all that is written in it. For then you will make your way prosperous, and then you will have good success. (9) Have I not commanded you? Be strong and of good courage; do not be afraid, nor be dismayed, for the LORD your God is with you wherever you go.”
11:23 So Joshua took the whole land, according to all that the Lord had spoken to Moses, and Joshua gave it for an inheritance to Israel according to their divisions by their tribes. Thus the land had rest from war.
Changes in leadership are always critical times for any nation. For that reason, the following chapters are key chapters in Joshua.
Chapters 1-4 record the change of leadership from Moses to Joshua and God’s personal promises and words of encouragement to Joshua in his new commission from the Lord, the crossing of the Jordan by the power of God, the commemoration of the crossing followed by the statement, “On that day the Lord exalted Joshua in the sight of all Israel; so that they revered him, just as they had revered Moses all the days of his life.”
Chapter 24: In keeping with the crucial nature of changes in leadership, chapter 24 is likewise an important chapter. Here Joshua reminds the people of God’s faithfulness from the time of Abraham through their deliverance out of Egypt, the crossing of the Jordan and victory over the Canaanites. Then he calls on them to remember the necessity of their faithfulness or they would be consumed by the Lord.
Joshua, Rahab, Caleb.
CHRIST AS SEEN IN JOSHUA:
Though there are no direct Messianic prophecies of Christ, there are a number of types which point to the Savior. Joshua is a type of Christ in four very important ways.
- First, his name, Yeshua, a contracted form of Yehoshua, meaning, “Yahweh is salvation,” is the Greek equivalent of the name Jesus. Joshua is actually called by the name Jesus in Acts 7:45.
- Second, Joshua is seen as a type of Christ in his work of leading Israel triumphantly into the rest of their promised possession, the land of Canaan (cf. Heb. 4:8). This is but a foretaste of the rest we enter by faith in Christ. He surely foreshadows the Savior who leads “many sons to glory” (Heb. 2:9-10).
- Further, Joshua was met by the Commander of the Lord’s army in 5:13-15. This is undoubtedly a Christophany, a preincarnate appearance of Christ who was there to teach Joshua that He had come not to take sides, but to take over as commander.
- Finally, Rahab’s scarlet cord (2:21) portrays salvation through the blood and death of Christ (cf. Heb. 9:19-22). This Gentile prostitute heard of the mighty works of God, believed, hid the spies, was delivered when Jericho was destroyed, and is found in the genealogy of Christ (Matt. 1:5).
Beautiful Story of Rahab
Joshua 6:25 NKJV And Joshua spared Rahab the harlot, her father’s household, and all that she had. So she dwells in Israel to this day, because she hid the messengers whom Joshua sent to spy out Jericho.
Matthew 1:5-6 NKJV Salmon begot Boaz by Rahab, Boaz begot Obed by Ruth, Obed begot Jesse, (6) and Jesse begot David the king. David the king begot Solomon by her who had been the wife of Uriah.
- The Invasion of Canaan (1:1-5:12)
- The Commissioning of Joshua (1:1-9)
- The Command of Joshua to the People and Their Response (1:10-18)
- The Canvassing of Jericho (chap. 2)
- The Crossing of the Jordan (chap. 3)
- The Commemoration of the Crossing (chap. 4)
- The Consecration of the People (chap. 5-12)
- The Conquest of Canaan (5:13-12:24)
- Conditioned for Victory: The Divine Commander (5:13-15)
- The Campaign in the Central Portion (chaps. 6-8)
- The Campaign in the South (chaps. 9-10)
- The Campaign in the North (11:1-15)
- The Review of the Victories (11:16-12:24)
- The Division of Canaan (chaps. 13-21)
- The Inheritance for the Two and One-Half Tribes (chap. 13)
- The Inheritance for Caleb (chap. 14)
- The Inheritance for the Nine and One-Half Tribes (15:1-19:48)
- The Inheritance for Joshua (19:49-51)
- The Cities of Refuge (20:1-9)
- The Cities for the Levites (21:1-45)
- Conclusion (chaps. 22-24)
- The Dispute About the Altar (chap. 22)
- The Discourse of Joshua (23:1-24:28)
- The Death of Joshua (24:29-33)
Sun Stand Still Faith (Always based on the Word of God)
Promise to Joshua
Joshua 8:1-2 NIV Then the LORD said to Joshua, “Do not be afraid; do not be discouraged. Take the whole army with you, and go up and attack Ai. For I have delivered into your hands the king of Ai, his people, his city and his land. (2) You shall do to Ai and its king as you did to Jericho and its king, except that you may carry off their plunder and livestock for yourselves. Set an ambush behind the city.”
Joshua defeats Ai and its King
Joshua 8:29 NIV He impaled the body of the king of Ai on a pole and left it there until evening. At sunset, Joshua ordered them to take the body from the pole and throw it down at the entrance of the city gate. And they raised a large pile of rocks over it, which remains to this day.
Gibeon makes peace with Israel
Joshua 10:1-2 NKJV Now it came to pass when Adoni-Zedek king of Jerusalem heard how Joshua had taken Ai and had utterly destroyed it–as he had done to Jericho and its king, so he had done to Ai and its king–and how the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel and were among them, (2) that they feared greatly, because Gibeon was a great city, like one of the royal cities, and because it was greater than Ai, and all its men were mighty.
Five Kings decide to attack Gibeon and Children of Israel
Joshua 10:3-4 NKJV Therefore Adoni-Zedek king of Jerusalem sent to Hoham king of Hebron, Piram king of Jarmuth, Japhia king of Lachish, and Debir king of Eglon, saying, (4) “Come up to me and help me, that we may attack Gibeon, for it has made peace with Joshua and with the children of Israel.”
Five kings’ names represent five ways that Satan comes to distract us in order to defeat us:
- Adoni-zedek – King of Jerusalem
- Hoham – King of Hebron
- Piram – King of Jarmuth
- Japhia – King of Lachish
- Debir – King of Eglon
- Adoni-zedek – King of Jerusalem – means Lord of righteousness
Satan will always come at you with some form of religion in order to deceive you. Through a minister, or scriptures, etc. to get you to drop your guard. Adoni-zedek was Satan’s counterfeit for Melchizedek, the priest and King of God. Melchizedek was long gone and the iniquity of the Amorites had crept into the city of Jerusalem and the people no longer served God. The people were wicked and the King simply took on a Godly title but did not represent what the title meant. This is what Satan did in the garden and also what he did when tempting Jesus in the wilderness.
- Hoham – King of Hebron – means voice of a multitude
Satan will come to you and tell you that you are the only one that is experiencing this situation and everyone else is normal. If you have the Word on a matter, it does not matter what the multitudes are doing, you go with God. When you are standing on the Word of God, there will be those that will not understand or agree with you. Your friends and family may not agree. There will be times when you have to stand on the Word of God when no one stands with you. You will have to know that when you are on the Word, God stands with you and will defend you.
- Piram – King of Jarmuth – means wild ass or donkey
This represents confusion and instability. Satan will endeavor to bring confusion and then try and force you to make a decision during that time of confusion. Never make a decision during that time; wait until the confusion is gone. When in that time of confusion, pray for clarity and wisdom and then make whatever decision that you need to make. Satan will try and get you to act in that time of confusion. God will always give you time for confirmation.
- Japhia – King of Lachish – means bright or dazzling
Satan will always try and make the world and the world’s way more dazzling and attractive. He tries to make Christianity seem boring and un-attractive. The world may be dazzling but there is NOTHING behind it.
- Debir – King of Eglon – means oracle, Satanic or false doctrine
These things are his attempts to present you with something diametrically opposed to the Word of God.
Acts 16:16-18 NKJV (16) Now it happened, as we went to prayer, that a certain slave girl possessed with a spirit of divination met us, who brought her masters much profit by fortune-telling. (17) This girl followed Paul and us, and cried out, saying, “These men are the servants of the Most High God, who proclaim to us the way of salvation.” (18) And this she did for many days. But Paul, greatly annoyed, turned and said to the spirit, “I command you in the name of Jesus Christ to come out of her.” And he came out that very hour.
What the little girl was saying sounded right but in Paul’s spirit, he knew it was wrong and cast the devil out of the girl.
These kings represent the onslaught of the enemy that comes against us at times. The children of Israel had defeated one army at a time up to this point.
Promise of Victory over Five Kings
Joshua 10:7-8 NKJV So Joshua ascended from Gilgal, he and all the people of war with him, and all the mighty men of valor. (8) And the LORD said to Joshua, “Do not fear them, for I have delivered them into your hand; not a man of them shall stand before you.”
Joshua needs more time to accomplish his mission
Joshua 10:12-14 NKJV Then Joshua spoke to the LORD in the day when the LORD delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel: “Sun, stand still over Gibeon; And Moon, in the Valley of Aijalon.” (13) So the sun stood still, And the moon stopped, Till the people had revenge Upon their enemies. Is this not written in the Book of Jasher? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and did not hasten to go down for about a whole day. (14) And there has been no day like that, before it or after it, that the LORD heeded the voice of a man; for the LORD fought for Israel.
What gave Joshua faith to believe he could command the Sun to stand Still
He was planning to do to these five kings what he had done to all of the previous kings – hang them on a tree (impale them on a pole).
Deuteronomy 21:22-23 NKJV (22) “If a man has committed a sin deserving of death, and he is put to death, and you hang him on a tree, (23) his body shall not remain overnight on the tree, but you shall surely bury him that day, so that you do not defile the land which the LORD your God is giving you as an inheritance; for he who is hanged is accursed of God.
Joshua 10:16-27 NKJV But these five kings had fled and hidden themselves in a cave at Makkedah. (17) And it was told Joshua, saying, “The five kings have been found hidden in the cave at Makkedah.” (18) So Joshua said, “Roll large stones against the mouth of the cave, and set men by it to guard them. (19) And do not stay there yourselves, but pursue your enemies, and attack their rear guard. Do not allow them to enter their cities, for the LORD your God has delivered them into your hand.” (20) Then it happened, while Joshua and the children of Israel made an end of slaying them with a very great slaughter, till they had finished, that those who escaped entered fortified cities. (21) And all the people returned to the camp, to Joshua at Makkedah, in peace. No one moved his tongue against any of the children of Israel. (22) Then Joshua said, “Open the mouth of the cave, and bring out those five kings to me from the cave.” (23) And they did so, and brought out those five kings to him from the cave: the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jarmuth, the king of Lachish, and the king of Eglon. (24) So it was, when they brought out those kings to Joshua, that Joshua called for all the men of Israel, and said to the captains of the men of war who went with him, “Come near, put your feet on the necks of these kings.” And they drew near and put their feet on their necks. (25) Then Joshua said to them, “Do not be afraid, nor be dismayed; be strong and of good courage, for thus the LORD will do to all your enemies against whom you fight.” (26) And afterward Joshua struck them and killed them, and hanged them on five trees; and they were hanging on the trees until evening. (27) So it was at the time of the going down of the sun that Joshua commanded, and they took them down from the trees, cast them into the cave where they had been hidden, and laid large stones against the cave’s mouth, which remain until this very day.
Jesus did the same thing:
Mark 4:39-41 NKJV (39) Then He arose and rebuked the wind, and said to the sea, “Peace, be still!” And the wind ceased and there was a great calm. (40) But He said to them, “Why are you so fearful? How is it that you have no faith?” (41) And they feared exceedingly, and said to one another, “Who can this be, that even the wind and the sea obey Him!”
Psalms 107:28-30 NKJV Then they cry out to the LORD in their trouble, And He brings them out of their distresses. (29) He calms the storm, So that its waves are still. (30) Then they are glad because they are quiet; So He guides them to their desired haven.